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Busy 21 5.3: The Best GST Accounting Software in India - Download Now

Live regions are perceivable regions of a web page that are typically updated as a result of an external event when user focus may be elsewhere. These regions are not always updated as a result of a user interaction. Examples of live regions include a chat log, stock ticker, or a sport scoring section that updates periodically to reflect game statistics. Since these asynchronous areas are expected to update outside the user's area of focus, assistive technologies such as screen readers have either been unaware of their existence or unable to process them for the user. WAI-ARIA has provided a collection of properties that allow the author to identify these live regions and process them: aria-live, aria-relevant, aria-atomic, and aria-busy.

busy 21 5.3 download

There may be times that required owned elements are missing, for example, while editing or while loading a data set. When a widget is missing required owned elements due to script execution or loading, authors MUST mark a containing element with aria-busy equal to true. For example, until a page is fully initialized and complete, an author could mark the document element as busy.

A feed is a container element whose children have role article. When articles are added or removed from either or both ends of a feed, authors SHOULD set aria-busy to true on the feed element before the changes are made and set it to false after the changes are complete. Authors SHOULD avoid inserting or removing articles in the middle of a feed. These requirements help assistive technologies gracefully respond to changes in the feed content that occur simultaneously with user commands to move the reading cursor within the feed.

The author SHOULD supply a value for aria-valuenow unless the value is indeterminate, in which case the author SHOULD omit the aria-valuenow attribute. Authors SHOULD update this value when the visual progress indicator is updated. If the progressbar is describing the loading progress of a particular region of a page, the author SHOULD use aria-describedby to point to the status, and set the aria-busy attribute to true on the region until it is finished loading. It is not possible for the user to alter the value of a progressbar because it is always read-only.

The default value of aria-busy is false for all elements. When aria-busy is true for an element, assistive technologies MAY ignore changes to content owned by that element and then process all changes made during the busy period as a single, atomic update when aria-busy becomes false.

If it is necessary to make multiple additions, modifications, or removals within a container element that is already either partially or fully rendered, authors MAY set aria-busy to true on the container element before the first change, and then set it to false when the last change is complete. For example, if multiple changes to a live region should be spoken as a single unit of speech, authors MAY set aria-busy to true while the changes are being made and then set it to false when the changes are complete and ready to be spoken.

If an element with role feed is marked busy, assistive technologies MAY defer rendering changes that occur inside the feed with the exception of user-initiated changes that occur inside the article that the user is reading during the busy period.

If changes to a rendered widget would create a state where the widget is missing required owned elements during script execution, authors MUST set aria-busy to true on the widget during the update process. For example, if a rendered tree grid required a set of simultaneous updates to multiple discontiguous branches, an alternative to replacing the complete tree element with a single update would be to mark the tree busy while each of the branches are modified.

Our study has several implications for clinicians, policy makers and researchers. First, although not evidenced by published data to date, continued improvement in survival of very preterm infants may lead in future to a growing number of children and adults with long-term health needs. Opportunity for cost-effective long-term ascertainment of outcomes for all infants admitted to neonatal care is offered by linkage of NNRD data with other national records, such as hospital, general practice and educational data sets. Second, the improvement in survival appears to be largely at lower GA and was inconsistent across the regions. Identifying and reducing inequity in health outcomes are a stated intention of the UK Government and NHS England. Third, we show that NNRD data, derived from EPR, enable timely evaluations of outcomes and eliminate the need for separate data capture by busy clinical teams. The small number of very preterm births and the increasing rarity of death in this population mean that large sample sizes enabled by the national coverage of the NNRD are required to detect variation. There is considerable interest in using EPR for research; we hope our study will serve as a template to advance this approach to improve patient care.


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